A Few Answers To Questions You Always Wondered About

August 24, 2016 | 3 Comments » | Topics: Answers, Interesting

What processes happen in your body when you get knocked out?

Jaw Impact

A punch to the jaw causes the head to suddenly spin around. This quick motion of causes trauma to the brain that knocks the recipient out leaving him unconscious. Points on the jaw that are especially vulnerable to knockouts are the sides of the chin, and where the jaw is attaches to the skull.

Acceleration and Deceleration

When the jaw is punched, the head quickly accelerates around. After a fraction of a second, it quickly decelerates as muscles, tendons, and bones prevent the head from spinning any further. The brain inside the skull is floating in fluid. It accelerates slower than the rest of the head. This forces it to crash into the inside of the skull when the head stops.

*Brain Trauma * When the brain slams into the inside of the skull, it suffers trauma. It then bounces off the inside of the skull and slams into the opposite side. This causes even more trauma. Depending on the force of the punch, this can happen several times before the brain comes to rest inside the skull.

Nervous System Response

The trauma to the brain stimulates an overwhelming number of neurotransmitters to fire at the same time. This essentially overloads the nervous system sending it into a state of temporary paralysis. The person who is hit in the jaw loses consciousness and his muscles relax. The injured person falls to the ground with no memory of being hit.

Recovery

A person who is knocked out by a punch to the jaw suffers a severe concussion. It can take anywhere from several seconds to several minutes to regain consciousness. It all depends on the severity of the brain trauma. In mild cases, the person who is knocked out can shake off the punch with little more than a headache. In severe cases, brain trauma from a knockout punch to the jaw can cause cerebral bleeding and death.

Source: http://www.livestrong.com/article/25152-punch-jaw-cause-knockout/#ixzz2lliYRnYR

 

 

Why do primitive animals/species know how to animal/specie by themselves, while us humans have to be taught since birth almost everything?

Actually, humans are born with the innate knowledge and ability to survive as is necessary for a baby. We’re born with a suckling instinct, for example, to latch onto nipples and draw food. We also have all the autonomic reflexes already, such as ticklishness, breathing, heart rate regulation, etc. These are common to all mammals, of which we are a member.

This is because primates are social animals; we are born into a group collective (a family unit) and predictably have a social group to learn from. You have to remember that when it comes to survival, humans know everything they need to know right when they’re born, because all that is required of them is autonomic in nature (breathing, heart rate, feeding, urinating, defecating, sleeping, waking), and we only require more complicated systems when we’ve grown. Humans as a whole are very weak when they’re first born, and require a great deal of security for quite a long time, compared to other animals. This is likely because we devote such a great percentage of the nutrients we ingest in order to develop our brains, as opposed to most other animals needing only to develop their bodies. This is likely why parents have an overwhelming emotional bond with their children.

Some animals are not social, and are therefore unable to learn from others of their species, and so they’re born with (or learn shortly after birth) more complex instincts.

– Kotama

 

 

Why is Blackjack the only mathematically beatable game in casino?

I’ll start with some terms here:

House edge: expressed in a percentage. The money the house expect to win on each bet.

Basic stragety: a tested theorem that that dictates a players move in a given blackjack hand. Please Google basic strategy, there’s a neat color coded chart you can look at.

Units: the number of increments of the minimum bet that the table maximum will allow. For example, if you are on a $5 minimum BJ table with a limit of $250 that only allows you to play one hand you can bet 50 units.

House edge is a representation of the mathematical advantage that the house has built in its rules.. Here are some examples.
Roulette: straight up bet pays 35 to 1. I’d you win you get 35 plus your bet. There is 1 way to win, and on a double 0 wheel, 37 ways to lose. If you cover every number (stupid) you lose 38 and win 36. So your return is 36/38. That’s 94.7% return giving the house an edge of 5.3% Craps: betting on a hop (one roll bet) pays to 30 for 1, 30 to 1, 15 for 1, or 15 to 1. Deference here is academic in this case, most casinos only for one, but to one is better. The 30s are for pairs (hard ways). Let’s say you think 11 will come next roll. There are 2 ways to roll 11, 6-5, and 5-6, if you have problems seeing this, pretend the dice are different colors. 2 dice x 6 sides = 36 combos. You have 2 ways to win out of 36. Or, 1 in 18. This bet at best pays 15 to 1. So win 16, lose 18. That’s an 88.8% return giving the house an edge of 11.2%. SERIOUSLY, I KNOW HOP BETS SUCK. THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF HOUSE EDGE. Bet the pass line with 10x odds. Happy?

The edge represents the difference between the true odds vs payable odds. With me so far?

Here’s where things change. In all other games of “chance”, these odds never change. Two dice always roll 11 with the same 2/36 chance, number 21 comes up approximately 1 out of 38 times in roulette. This is inescapable. Short term variance is expected and even necessary, no one would play a game where they always lost. But blackjack and it’s variants (of the non continuous shuffle variety) are different fundamentally, they have memory. There a finite number of cards in that games universe if you will. In a 6 deck shoe (suits don’t matter in BJ) there are 312 cards. 24 of each A-9, and 96 10 value cards (10, J, Q, K no difference between these functionally) Basic strategy is a statistical model that, based on the rules of the casino at which you are playing, help you make the least bad decision. I say least bad, because it is accurate. There are no good decisions in blackjack because statistically it is still a negative expectation game. Meaning, over a large sampling, with perfect basic strategy, you will still lose. Now, this is for everyone in the back, STATISTICAL OUTCOMES HAVE NOTING TO FUCKING DO WITH SHORT TERM SUCCESS OR FAILURE!!!!!!

So, a recap here. Most games suck because the odds are bad and built in. You can chose less bad bets, but all bets are bad, get it?

But wait, you said Black Jack is different! It is. As I said, basic strategy lets you make the least bad decisions. Some situations actually have a positive expected outcome, like doubling down when you have 11 vs a dealers up card of 6. Keep in mind though, that the aggregate of all those situations still places you in the territory of negative expectation.

Card counting: there are plenty of tutorials online to teach this, but as a very simple rule of thumb, because of the rules of hitting and staying that casinos follow for their dealers, big cards favor the player, while little cards favor the dealer. I’m not going to get into the math here, it’s rather lengthy, but suffice to say that knowing the ratio of big cards to little cards remaining in the deck can offer an advantage to the player.

So, why does the dealer have the advantage on black jack? It’s not their hit/stand rules. Those only exist because if they were any more lenient to the dealer no one would play. THE ONLY ADVANTAGE THE HOUSE HAS IN BJ IS THE DOUBLE BUST LOSS. Scenario 1. Player has 20, dealer busts. Player wins Scenario 2. Player has 20, dealer has 20. Player pushes (ties) nobody loses/wins Scenario 3. Player busts his hand, dealer has 20. Dealer wins.

These all seem fair so far. Here’s the one that earns all the house it’s money. Scenario 4. Player busts his hand. Dealer busts his hand. Player still loses.

That’s it. They only advantage. So, try not to take hits that can bust you unless you statistically need to.

Let’s now regroup.
1. You know that busting loses your money, though paradoxically, standing when you should hit, while reducing your bust %, actually lowers your statical overall win % more. 2. You know that because 10s are good for you and little cards are bad, if you can keep track of the ratio of that and are in the right situation, you can have an advantage over the house. The average difference in expressed advantage generally is only 2%. Let’s say the house has a 51-49 advantage over you, sometimes you can make that 51-49 in your favor with counting.

How do you take advantage of this? Unit betting.
Let’s take a $5 dollar table. It has 7 spots. You are the only player. It’s max is$ 500. This casino let’s you play all 7 spots if the table is empty. Therefore, the unit spread is as follows 500/5 = 100 units per spot *7 spots = 700 unit spread. (This is an example only, doing this will get you labeled as a counter on the spot and backed off immediately) As you know the deck (shoe) favors the dealer most of the time it makes sense to expose the least amount of your money to that negative expectation. When the 10 ratio changes in your favor, you can now expose 700 times that bet to a positive outcome.
So while you’re only going to have a %2 advantage, you’re now betting 3500 with a better than even chance of winning. (YES I KNOW THINGS GET STREAKY SOMETIMES. SHUT UP, THESE ARE BASICS.)

So, get it? Expose less of you money when you’re at a disadvantage and more when it’s in your favor. Counting is the exact reverse of the casino model. You’re eking out wins on a small marking, but unlike the casino, you can alter your betting and actions with this knowledge

– thecasey1981

 

 

Why a lawyer can help you so much during a police interrogation

As the video above explains, what the lawyer will do is tell you not to talk.

The lawyer isn’t magical. The main take away, though, is that a good lawyer will have a sense of what the police actually know, when they are telling you the truth, and whether what you want to say might get you in trouble. (and what you’re actually getting in return).

As the second speaker in the video mentions, cops have a lot of experience and training in interrogating people and getting them to admit things and give them the information they want. You almost certainly don’t. The lawyer helps even that playing field.

 

 

Why do orchestras need conductors?

Well if we are talking non professionals (so College (though many top band colleges are pretty close to professional) on down), the reason is because the conductor helps them rehearse and does help them keep in time and things like that.

But for professionals, you are right. The musicians ARE really really good. They know their parts, and generally the “rehearsal” is playing through the song once before the performance, then the performance. With the understanding that each person knows their part perfectly, and they do. You will notice that in lower level bands, like in high school, the conductor is keeping a steady beat a lot. This is to help the players. But you will notice in professional levels many times it seems like the conductor isn’t keeping the beat really at all… this is because the musicians don’t really need help with keeping the beat anymore because they are quite good.

Now what does he do? Well think of it this way. Get 20 people together and have them close their eyes. Now everybody clap at the same beat together. It will be pretty easy to do that. Now have them slow down at the same pace together… not too easy at all. “How slow are we going down to? How fast do we slow down?” All these things people have difficulty doing without any sort of cue. That is where a conductor comes in.

Or another thing a conductor helps with is emotive expression. Playing a single instrument in a band doesn’t actually give you a good representation of what the band sounds like to the audience. If you are a clarinet, for example, you can hear the clarinets REALLY well, the flutes pretty well, and the brass sitting behind you will be particularly loud. It can be difficult hearing the trombones though on the other side or something like that. While good players do know how to balance and how to listen, it helps having the conductor signal “more, more!” or “back off a little” since he is hearing everybody.

He also cues different sections which is helpful for placement issues, as well as when you get into mixed meters such as 9/8 where it can be broken up as 2+3+2+2 and the next bar be 3+2+2+2 and keep switching around. In cases like that it is helpful having somebody denoting where the emphases are.

And then there are cues that come down to the conductor. The conductor decides when a certain instrument comes in. For example the brass section is holding a long note, and then the conductor decides the flutes to come in, and then the clarinets. The conductor also decides how long pauses last and whatnot. Where it is difficult to do with a large band.

You will notice small chamber groups (like 4 members) don’t need a conductor, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t synchronizing. They are constantly watching each other for the beat, and many times the lead of the group will be the one to signal cut offs and starts by their body movement, so still acting as a “conductor”, but it is hard for somebody in the 5th row to see somebody sitting in the 1st row for these cues, which is why the conductor is at the top.

 

How much work does a pilot really do and how much is controlled by autopilot?

Before the flight even takes off the pilots are planning the route, making sure they have enough fuel and reserves, filing the flight plans and getting them approved. They also check the airplane for any issues. If there have been any previous issues reported in the log they will check to see if the issue have been resolved and go though the maintenance logs and talk to the maintenance crew.

When they finally are ready to leave the gate they will have to coordinate with the ground crew and traffic control. There is no autopilot for taxing yet. The airplanes are not built for easy taxing so even maneuvering around on the airport without hitting any other planes requires lots of communication with the tower. This communication goes both ways as the tower might not see all airplanes on the airfield and it is not the optimal situation for radar either.

Once they are in the air they will monitor the airplane for any issues. There are issues that the autopilot can not deal with, most of them are sensor failures. A human is much better at determining what instruments are working and what is not. Humans also handle unknown situations better then computers. In addition the pilots will be communicating with the air traffic controllers on the ground. There is no standard for communications between the flight computer and ground control so all information needs to be relayed though voice radio communication which requires a human at both ends.

This being said most of the military drones use commercially available autopilots and flight computers and can be left without attention for longer periods of time. However these do not have passengers on board and do not have to follow the standards of civil aviation.

And what´s with turbulences? How much can a airplane really handle?

Short answer: A whole lot more than you’ll ever experience.

Longer answer: First and foremost pilots are constantly checking: weather, radar, and PIREPS (reports from other pilots about what the ride is like, etc). They will ask ATC to change their course as much as they can, but sometimes they can’t (other traffic in the way, or would cut too much from fuel reserves/add too much time to the flight. Additionally, some airlines restrict how much throttle the pilots can use to “make up” for lost time. Airlines like Southwest give their pilots free reign of the throttles, which is why most SWA flights, even if they took off late, will land early.

If you’re on a East-bound flight, the pilot will likely try to ride the “jetstream,” which often has wind shear associated with it. This windshear can cause moderate turbulence, but it is often a good trade off for the shortened flight time.

The “spectrum” of turbulence, if you will, is classified as: Light, Moderate, Severe, and Extreme.

Most turbulence that you would encounter in your average airline flight is what is referred to as “clear air turbulence.” This is most often light turbulence, but sometimes can rise to moderate. Keep in mind that turbulence is still considered moderate up until “passengers are thrown violently, and walking is impossible,” in which case it would then be classified as “severe” turbulence.

Everything short of Extreme cannot and will not break the airplane, (assuming that it is well maintained. Airlines are held to some strict standards, so chances are the plane you’re flying in is well maintained).

Extreme turbulence is where it becomes an emergency, and the pilot needs to use any and all means to exit the turbulent area. If, for some reason, you were on a flight that ended up in extreme turbulence, you would likely feel the plane dive rapidly without any warning. This is not a problem. The pilot is likely doing an emergency dive and is too busy flying the plane to tell the passengers what is happening. The chances of you ending up in extreme turbulence as the passenger of an airliner is slim to none, as this is typically only associated with a storm. Pilots do not fly through storms on purpose. The only way that you would end up in one would be if it came out of nowhere, which hardly ever happens anymore.

The wings on airliners are strong. I mean really, really, really strong. They bend on purpose to relieve the energy in them, and they can bend A LOT. By a lot, I mean a good margin higher than the top of the fuselage. There are videos on YouTube of wing bending tests so you can see this for yourself. Here  is the test of a 777 wing. You can hear the narrator saying “154” in the background. That was him letting the audience know that the wing was bent to 154% of its designed breaking point. The wing will not bend to anywhere near that extent in flight.

Any turbulence causes the wings to bend in a wave like motion as it dissipates the energy. Note: this motion may cause the fuselage to oscillate higher and lower, creating the feeling of stronger turbulence than reality, depending on the period of oscillation. The wings are supposed to dampen oscillations, but natural resonance still exists to an extent.

Also a side note, the engines can handle more weather than you can. There are videos of Rolls Royce testing their engines to ensure that they still run with heavy rain, and they shoot several firehouses of water through the engine and it still runs. here  is a video of that happening.

All of this is to say, you have NOTHING to worry about. So next time you’re on a flight and it starts getting turbulent, you can kick back with your drink be a weirdo like me, watching the wings bend with a big smile on my face as I appreciate the beautiful engineering at work.

 

 

 

What it’s like to be a man who was born with female sex organs?

So – when I look at myself naked in the mirror, I see something beautiful. Really, just the pique of feminine beauty. I have very attractive features for a woman and I don’t take issue with my body aesthetically. It’s solid. I am one hot lady. I would totally do me.

But – when I put on my chest binder and wear guy clothes, I see myself. It doesn’t matter if I’m attractive as a guy, or if other people see me as a man (not to me, anyway – some trans guys are different), or any of that. I just want to look in the mirror and see who I am. I want to be able to recognize the person looking back at me. That just doesn’t happen when I’m in “girl mode”. Wearing a dress and make-up, I feel like I’m dressing in drag. Dressing like a man, I feel like myself.

I have to hide my breasts from myself so I don’t look down and have that cognitive dissonance between who I know I am and the body I have. Because, in my head, I don’t have breasts. I have pecs. I’m not ripped. Just a small skinny dude.

I even respond to my male name instinctually. That never happened with my female name. It always took me a while to realize that someone was talking to or about me.

Also, I’ve noticed that since I’ve come out, I’ve been more myself: more outgoing, happier, more likely to crack a joke, etc. Overall, I just have more of a tendency to say and do the things I’ve always wanted to say or do, but didn’t because I was trying so hard to hide my true self – afraid that people would see through the facade and see the man underneath. I just wanted to fit in. But now, where others might people see a freak, I feel myself. Whereas, the opposite was true before.

I don’t insist on people referring to me as a man. Because there is nothing wrong with being a woman. It’s just simply not who I am. It’s not how I’ve ever thought of myself. And I understand that the self and the body don’t match up (yet) so I don’t fault people for referring to me as a woman.

However, when my friends do refer to me with my male name and with male pronouns, it feels right to me. And I’ve always been “one of the guys”. So, it didn’t surprise them much either. They tend to agree that it makes more sense to refer to me in the masculine because of how my brain works, my mannerisms, my interests, etc.

When I came out to them, most of them just said “Finally! Great. What do you want me to call you?”

So, if my brain tells me “male” and my personality and temperament says “dude” to others, but I have a vagina, then you really only have to decide which you personally think is more important in defining me: who I am or who I looklike I am.

Honestly, I don’t care what you choose. I know who I am. And if you define people by their physicality, that’s your prerogative. But I would hope you see people as more than their bodies.

Anyway, I hope that at least somewhat helped to answer your question. I’m still very early on in my transition and trying to work a lot of this out myself.

– betkettle