With all the lawsuits going around where companies can’t be sexist when hiring employees how is Hooters able to only hire hot women?
Legally, it’s what’s called a “bona fide occupational qualification” that hooters waitresses must be female. The federal law that protects from employment discrimination says that you can refuse to hire someone based on their gender if their gender is that specific to the job. HOWEVER, Hooters has to be willing to hire male cooks, busboys, etc, because those jobs are “behind the scenes” and so are not protected by the Hooters = women thing. Basically, it works because Hooters’ entire brand is based on hiring women as waitresses. Doesn’t mean they can get away with never hiring men for OTHER jobs, and doesn’t mean any restaurant could get away with it.
If I had a restaurant that was 100% branded to be all about hot guys, I could legally hire only hot guys. But if I had a regular coffee shop that wasn’t marked as a hot guy coffee shop, I could not legally refuse to hire women.
What are some logical fallacies people use during arguments and debates?
Ad hominem To attack the person not the argument: “We should increase taxes”, “Don’t listen to him, he only showers once a week”.
Circular Reasoning Where the reason relies on the conclusion being true. “God exists because the Bible says so; Bible is true since it’s the word of God”.
Slippery slope The assumption that accepting one thing will lead to increasing undesirable other things. “If we let the immigrants in then they will take our jobs, leaving us homeless and then our children will be forced to work as prostitutes for food. Is that what you want? Child prostitutes?”
False Dilemma Forcing or suggesting there are only two possible options in a situation, where really there are many. “Steve insulted my mother, so I had to either punch him or be forever known as a wuss”
Tu quoque Literally you too (I think). Basically saying that if you don’t do it, why should I? “My doctor told me to lose weight, but what does he know? He’s fatter than me!”
Appeal to Authority Where a statement by an irrelevant authoritative figure or group is used. “Dr Steve says the vaccine causes cancer, so that vaccine must be banned.” “Tiger Woods says this 10 bladed razor is way better than a 3 bladed one. The 7 extra blades therefore clearly make a difference.”
Appeal to Popularity Where if a sizeable group of people belief in something, the belief must be correct. “300,000 Indians eat rice every day, therefore it must be healthy.”
Appeal to Ignorance Where you assume something is true because it hasn’t been proven false. Your standard “I don’t know, therefore aliens”.
Loaded Question Asking a question that presumes a certain fact. “What’s your opinion on the immigrants that are ruining our society?” assumes immigrants are ruining our society, and by answering it directly you agree with this statement.
Straw Man Misrepresent the argument to make it easier to knock down. “We should give free fruit to school kids”, “Yeah, let’s just give everyone free food. That would just lead to obesity and a greater deficit”.
Post Hoc (ergo propter hoc) Claiming that because something happens after something else, the first caused the second. “I wore my green socks today, and then found out my wife was leaving me. I didn’t know she hated them that badly.”
Gamblers’ Fallacy Believing that a deviation in a series of (independent) chance events will soon be met by a deviation the opposite way. “I’ve given birth to six boys. My next kid is definitely a girl!”
Middle Ground Saying that a compromise between two extreme position is the correct one, solely because it is in the middle. “Schools are being forced to teach both creationism and the theory of evolution. The truth must be somewhere in between; they should teach the theory of creatioevolutionism.”
Appeal to Emotion Relying on manipulating emotions rather than a solid argument. “Look at this poor little dog. Look at it! He looks so miserable and depressed. We should take him home and look after him.” or “Meth. Not even once.”
“Fallacy” Fallacy The fallacy you might use after reading this list. An argument contains a fallacy, therefore the conclusion is wrong. “The Meth. Not even once. campaign is just one massive appeal to emotion fallacy. Therefore there is no reason to stop doing meth.”
How do you correctly use an equalizer?
Here’s what those levels are adjusting:
16Hz – 60Hz = SUB BASS This is the super low-end that can be felt physically by your body on a good subwoofer/sub-bass system. Sounds with these frequencies are the most powerful ones, and they will take up a lot of room in the mix. Use this range to fatten up your kick drums or sub-bass patches. Too much volume in this range makes your mix sound «muddy.»
60Hz – 250Hz = BASS This is where basslines and kick drums have their most important sounds. A common problem is that the bassline and kick cancel each other out due to PHASE problems (easily demonstrated when DJ-ing, if you play two tracks and have them beatmatched, it’s important to cut one of the tracks’ bass level or else the kick drums will cancel each other out and the overall bass level is lowered). A useful trick then is to try PHASE INVERSION on either the bassline or the kick drum, compressing the kick and bass together and/or avoiding to place a bass note on top of a kick drum. This range should also be lowered in most other sounds like guitars, synth lines and vocals so they don’t interfere with the kick and bassline. Too much volume here makes the mix sound «boomy.»
200Hz – 400Hz Too much volume here will cause vocals to sound muddy and unclear. Cut this to thin out drum parts like snares, hi-hats, percussions and cymbals, boost to make them sound warmer or more «woody.»
250Hz – 2kHz = LOW MID or MID-LO Most instruments have their «darkest» parts here; guitars, piano, synthlines. Boosting around 500Hz – 1kHz can sound «horn-like» while boosting 1kHz – 2kHz can sound metallic.
400Hz – 800Hz You can reduce some of these frequencies on the master mix to make your overall bass level sound tighter. Boost or cut here to fatten up or thin out the low end of guitars, synthlines and vocals.
800Hz – 1kHz Here you can also fatten up vocals and make them sound warmer, in a different way than the previously mentioned method. Boosting around 1kHz helps add to the «knocking» sound of a kick drum.
1kHz – 3kHz This is the edgy part of a sound, boost (gently!) here to define guitars, pianos, vocals and add clarity to basslines. Cut here to remove painful mid-frequencies in vocals. This frequency range is very hard on the ears, so be careful not adding too much volume here!
2kHz – 4kHz = HIGH MID or MID-HI Vocals have a lot of sound in this area, the sounds «B», «M» and «V» lie here.
3kHz – 6kHz = PRESENCE Plucky, fingered guitars and basslines can be more defined by boosting in this range. Cut in the lower part to remove the hard sound of vocals. Cut in the upper part to soften/round off sounds, and boost to add more clarity or presence to a sound. Boosting here helps defining most instruments and vocals.
6kHz – 10kHz = HIGH Boost this area to add more air and transparency to a sound. Crispness and and sparkle can be added by boosting this range on guitars, strings and synth sounds. Snares and bassdrums also benefits from boosting this area. In vocals, cut some of these frequencies (a de-esser plugin does this easily) to remove the hissing sounds. The sounds «S» and «T» lies between 6kHz and 8kHz and too much volume there will make the vocals stressful on your ears.
10kHz – 16kHz = HIGH This frequency range is where the crispness and brightness of sounds lie, and hi-hats and cymbals are the dominant drum parts. You can boost here to add even more air and transparency to sounds, and cut here to remove noise and hissing sounds which is unwanted in a bassline, for example. Pads and atmospheric sounds benefits from a boost in this range to make them sound brighter. Be careful not to boost too heavily, or else the mix will sound noisy.
How do wrestlers communicate during a match?
Man, wrestlers are gonna hate me for this…
1 – A gentle voice
This is the one you often hear about. Or not.
When calling matches (i.e. telling his opponent what to do next), wrestlers often use move names or a keyword that entails a combination of moves. The keywords sometimes originate from the sequence being associated with particular wrestlers, such as John Cena and his Five Moves of Doom (2 flying shoulder tackles, side slam, Five Knuckle Shuffle, & Attitude Adjustment).
Move-calling is usually done while applying headlocks, chinlocks, or other rest holds so that the mouth area of at least one wrestler could be covered. This allows the covered wrestler to direct the flow of the match without being too overt.
2 – A gentle squeeze
There are 2 main scenarios where a squeeze is used.
The first is right after a big move, such as a powerbomb, a dive off the top rope, or even after a botched (i.e. badly done) maneuver. The wrestler taking the damage (which could be the person delivering the move in some cases) would lightly squeeze the opponent’s hand. Being able to squeeze one’s hand means that the wrestler doesn’t suffer from any neurological damage and is still conscious enough to communicate the signal right after the big move. This is essentially saying “I’m okay.” If the wrestlers end up too far away from one another after the move, the referee’s warm, loving hands will come into play (Spoiler alert: referees are more important than you think).
The second scenario is much less risky. In a wrist lock, the wrestler doing the torturing will use the thumb and index finger to lightly squeeze the other’s wrist/palm to indicate the exact time the wrist lock is to be reversed e.g. right after the torturer twists the arm for an extra half-rotation. This ensures that the reversal generates the biggest reaction from the crowd as they rally their support for the afflicted hero.
3 – A gentle pinch
The pinch is usually used by the wrestler being placed in a hold (e.g. headlock, leg scissors) as a gentle reminder that the other person is applying the hold a little too tightly.
Wrestlers need oxygen too, you know?
4 – A gentle palm turn
In a tag team match, the hand placement of the person not in the match can give off certain clues. When that person holds his/her arm out, but the palm faces down, it’s like telling his/her partner “Don’t tag me in yet, hang on.” But as soon as the palm is up, the hot tag will likely follow.
This palm turn is done because the person in the ring would be reaching for the tag with his/her back turned against the opponent. As a result, there’s no way for the fighting teammate to know exactly when his/her adversary makes an attempt to interfere with the tag. Letting the person know just when to make a heroic leap for the hot tag would create a satisfying visual effect where (usually) the good guy (i.e. face) barely escapes the grasps of the bad guy (i.e. heel) to reach his/her partner for the rescue.
The hot tag is made, and the crowd goes wild.
5 – A gentle beckoning
Whoever is doing the next move may do a little “come here” gesture towards the opponent. At first glance, this might look like an innocent attempt at taunting. But it can mean something more – it could be a signal for the right time to get up for whatever maneuver that ensues.
6 – A gentle clap
You might begin to notice a theme here – timing is pretty important in professional wrestling. And the clap is no exception.
The most notable example of this is Kazuchika Okada. He is regarded to have one of the finest-looking dropkicks in the world. Before delivering his dropkick (right before leaping, to be more precise), he would clap, an action that’s audible most of the time.
He does this especially when attempting to kick opponents perched at the top rope or facing away from him. This is to help the opponent, who might even be running towards him at full speed, time Okada’s jump so that he could bump accordingly. A badly-timed dropkick not only looks terrible due to the receiver falling to the mat unnaturally, but can also be pretty dangerous if the kick actually connects. Whiplash injuries are a real risk that could potentially end careers (Bret Hart, Paige) or even lives (Perro Aguayo Jr.).
7 – A gentle tap
Similar logic to the clap, Exhibit A this time is Randy Orton and his draping DDT.
In a draping DDT, Orton would have his opponent in a front face lock while the opponent’s feet are, well, draped on the middle or top rope.
As you can see, in a face lock, there’s really no eye contact between the two wrestlers. As a result, Orton taps on the back of his foe to let the person know when he will actually execute the DDT. The DDT, if not properly prepared for damage, will result in the opponent’s head being driven straight to the mat. Usually hands or knees are used to cushion the fall, but in a draping DDT, the opponent’s legs are already air-born & the knees would land after the face has hit the ring. Also, without proper timing, he wouldn’t know when to use his hands anyways.
Therefore, the tap is needed, to prevent any nasty surprises.
Even though the question is about communication between professional wrestlers, a huge factor in the success of a match involves the referees, and yes, here’s ANOTHER LIST, dedicated to all the things the men in stripes do to ensure smooth proceedings.
1 – Earpieces
You don’t think those earphones are to prevent eardrum damage from all the noise in the arena, do you?
There would usually be somebody else on the other side of the line giving the referee cues, such as when a commercial has started or how many more minutes a match is supposed to go for. The referee will then relay the messages to the wrestlers so they can make adjustments to the match accordingly.
In case of commercial breaks, the wrestlers will likely tone down their action to avoid any unnecessary risk-taking. What’s the point of doing a Phoenix Splash off the top rope onto 4 tables if what’s on TV at that moment is an ad for hemorrhoid cream?
Meanwhile, cues about the time remaining will help the wrestlers plan the match finish properly. A match is as good as its finish, and if the finish comes too rushed, it could stink the entire contest, making all the efforts thus far as good as gone.
2 – Eye contact
This is especially utilized in contests with complicated endings, such as those involving (multiple) finisher kick-outs, outside interference, or a second referee. Sometimes, things are really hectic out there, so there needs to be a way, a rule-of-thumb to let the ref knows when to tap the mat a third time.
When the pinning wrestler looks at the referee, the message is “Nuh uh. This match isn’t done yet.” But many false finishes, near-falls, & run-in’s later, when it’s finally the end, the referee’s eyes shall be met with none.
“This is it. Let’s go home, buddy”, understood the man in stripes, & down the mat his hand goes. Bam, bam, bam. The bell rings, & another match is in the books.
3 – D-Emergency X
Now this is probably the only thing in this entire answer that isn’t done in a way that protects the perceived legitimate nature (i.e. kayfabe) of a contest. Rather, the X sign is to protect the wrestlers themselves.
When the referee’s forearms go up & across, you know some real sh*t had gone wrong. Terribly wrong.
Maybe a wrestler messed up a move, landed on his neck, & couldn’t feel his fingers. Maybe somebody tore an ACL after a botched top-rope maneuver. Maybe somebody went down with a heart attack & ceased breathing.
Whatever the case, a referee’s X always stops the match.
Something bad had happened. That’s when the theatricals come to an end, & real life intervenes.
Side note: These signs aren’t applicable to every single match, as different wrestlers have different communication styles, based on their locations, trainers, & past experiences. Alternatively, you might come across the cues in a match, but they aren’t used with their original intentions at all – the wrestlers involved could be so familiar with one another that they don’t need to communicate to understand/predict what would happen next.
Also, I don’t write this to expose professional wrestling as being fluke or phony. I write this to illustrate a point.
This form of entertainment is more than what meets the eye. It’s more than just scantily clad men and women grappling in public.
Professional wrestling is an art.
Its subtlety never ceases to amaze me, and after reading this, I hope you will feel just as captivated as I am.